Safe water with certainty.
PotaVida is lowering the cost of providing safe water in disaster relief and development contexts, while automating recording of usage behavior to enable effective monitoring and evaluation.
Providing Safe Water: There are 700 million people without access to safe water, resulting in preventable disease and death. In Haiti, for example, $9B has been spent on disaster relief, yet over 700,000 people have been infected with Cholera, a waterborne disease, and over 9,000 people have died as a result. Aid agencies and governments need a lower cost method of disinfecting water reliably that does not depend on consistent supply chains.
Efficient Use of Resources: Aid agencies conduct in-person surveys to collect usage data on water purification systems. Surveying a household takes 20 to 30 minutes, and the resulting self-reported data is biased. More reliable and detailed usage data is needed to effectively monitor, evaluate, and improve aid programs in the field.
PotaVida's Solar Water Purifier consists of a 10 liter hydration bag with an electronic dosage indicator that shows when the water is safe to drink and records usage data. Our technology uses the process of solar disinfection (SODIS) to reduce the cost of water treatment and eliminate the need for replacing filters and chemicals. Each batch of water is ready in as little as 2 hours in sunny conditions, or up to 2 days during the rainy season. Our product has a shelf life of 5 years and design lifetime of 1 year, making it an ideal disaster relief supply. To use, simply fill the bag with water, place it in the sun, push a button, and wait for the indicator's green LED to show that the water is safe.
The disinfection monitor electronically records its own usage, including attempted/incorrect usage as well as completed cycles, thus capturing the total water disinfected by each unit. This data can be wirelessly downloaded to a smartphone with a simple attachment, and tagged with GPS information before being sent to a centralized database. Aid agencies can see usage in real-time down to the level of individual users and their locations.
Charlie is the technical architect of PotaVida’s Solar Water Purifier. He led the effort that garnered a $40,000 prize in a design competition for our original concept and conducted our recent field trial in Uganda. He has a BS in engineering from Harvey Mudd College and a Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of Washington. His dissertation work was on novel interfaces for enabling individuals to control prosthetics and computers using individual neurons in the brain. He is an entrepreneur who understands how to leverage for-profit business and technology development models to provide market-based solutions to the developing world.
Tyler has a background in public policy and economics, and 3 years of field work experience in developing countries. Tyler was the PI for Technology and Social Change at the University of Washington for a 6-country study of benefits and costs of access to information and communication technology. Tyler builds the business models and leads PotaVida’s grant writing efforts. A Ph.D. candidate at the Evans School of Public Policy, Tyler's dissertation work is third party certification of environmental goods. His research experience also includes economic modeling of subsistence economies in Indonesia and development of principles and standards for benefit cost analysis for social programs.
Jackie oversees biological compliance and has conducted field trials in Nicaragua and Zambia. She is an expert in evaluating and implementing health solutions in low-resource settings. She is an assistant professor of biomedical engineering at Purdue University, and holds a PhD in bioengineering and a certificate in Global Health from the University of Washington. She is an expert in pathogen detection disinfection and engineering solutions that improve global health. Jackie has extensive global health implementation experience, including leading an assessment of user response and usage of improved cooking stoves for Engineers Without Borders in rural Bolivia. Jackie has taught at MIT, Harvard, and Boston University.
Randy Strash is a 34-year veteran of World Vision, credited with launching a number of programs and campaigns that yielded over $1B cash and $10B in-kind donations during his tenure. He has extensive field experience in several countries in Africa, including opening World Vision's office in Rwanda, and is well connected in the water, sanitation, and hygiene sector domestically and internationally.
As a veteran of small start-up ventures and large multinational companies, Ron brings a diverse set of business experiences and technical knowledge. His specialties include product development planning, ramping products to volume production, and engineering management of hardware and software development. Previously the VP of engineering at Impinj and Snupi, Ron now operates a consulting firm. He has been advising PotaVida since 2013, helping us select contractors for engineering design, rapid prototyping, and user interface design.
The Solar Water Purifier treats drinking water using solar disinfection, often abbreviated SODIS.
SODIS is a process that uses the UV in sunlight to inactivate pathogens in water, including bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. The process takes a few hours, depending on weather, water clarity, and the UV transparency of the container. In addition, temperatures above 45°C increase the speed at which pathogens are inactivated. SODIS is a highly effective process that is recommended by the World Health Organization. Until now, it has been challenging in practice because of the impossibility for the user to know how much sun the water has received, just like it's impossible to tell whether or not you'll get sunburned on a cloudy day. PotaVida's Solar Water Purifier takes out the guesswork, and even the need to be trained on SODIS; just wait for the green light and drink with confidence, as we've taken care of the details!
The table (source: EAWAG) provides a list of pathogens that SODIS has been verified to inactivate. It is true that cryptosporidium requires more exposure than other pathogens, and that amoebas require heat for inactivation. However, the vast majority of common pathogens, usually caused by fecal contamination of drinking water sources, are readily dealt with.
PotaVida is raising funds to conduct a 1000 unit field trial. Please Contact Us if you wish to support us!
May 01, 2013 by PotaVida
Field visit to Bimbe, Zambia - a field visit success!
In April, Jackie Linnes and her husband Michael traveled with our World Vision Zambia partners to Bimbe, Zambia, 40km northwest of capital city Lusaka. The trip was an important milestone in our effort to improve our product before we produce it on a mass scale. It had two goals:
We're thrilled to report we met both goals. (If you've been in the development world a while, you know field visits can be full of surprises, not always the good kind; meeting your trip objectives is never a sure thing!). Here's a rundown.
In terms of sourcing, we learned the people of Bimbe get drinking water from two main sources: an unprotected hand-dug well and a stream (which runs past numerous agricultural fields). In the past safe water came from a borehole and a deep protected well. But the well collapsed, and the borehole is now obstructed — it takes nearly two hours to hand pump water to the surface, say villagers. That means both sources presently yield water that's not safe to drink.
When it came to disinfecting the water for drinking, because of World Vision’s previous WASH campaigns in Bimbe, the community is acutely aware of the dangers of unsafe water. They presently disinfect their water either with chlorine or by boiling it. The government only runs free chlorine promotion campaigns in the rainy season, so chlorine is unavailable for the dry season - six months out of the year. During that time women have to gather firewood to boil drinking water. They boil water at night, so it can cool overnight for drinking the next day.
Given these circumstances, community members were excited about using the PotaVida Solar Water Purifiers (below left). They had had the prototype purifiers for several days in advance of our visit, and were ready to discuss them with us when we arrived.
The photo at right shows the Solar Water Purifier prototypes in the community. The top bag is filled with tap water, while the bottom one contains water from the local borehole, colored by iron oxide particles.
We learned most families chose to put the purifiers on their dish drying rack: it was a readily available sunny location, where animals wouldn't disturb the purifiers and the disinfection process (below right). We answered many questions, and we got incredibly useful feedback on the purifiers. Some examples:
We left our current models in the village for the community to continue testing. We're excited with the info we came away with: the feedback from real users gives us confidence we're on the right track, and gives us ground-truthed suggestions for ways to make our product even more useful!
October 01, 2013 by PotaVida
Hello everyone! It has been another intense month for the PotaVida team. We have monitors in six countries for expert review, an independent university laboratory testing our monitors, and a new, more user friendly water bag that will make monitoring your solar disinfection simpler and more intuitive.
PotaVida Prototypes go to Africa, Europe and Latin America!
We currently have expert advisors in Spain, Ghana, Zambia, and Senegal reviewing PotaVida prototypes. Special thanks to Fundacion SODIS director Matthias Saladin, World Vision Core Program Manager for Western Africa Sam Diarra, World Vision Water and Sanitation Director for Southern Africa Emmanuel Opong, Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland SODIS researcher Kevin McGuigan, and WaterAid Nicaragua Country Director Joshua Briemburg.
These experts are providing excellent feedback on the usability, desirability, and intuitiveness of the monitors. We are thrilled to have their insight into the value-add that the monitors provide to the SODIS process. In Senegal specifically, 100% of the SODIS users interviewed by Dr. Kevin McGuigan's research group liked the monitor and supported the technology because they can easily know when their water is treated.
Use Cases: A Great Design Exercise
Charlie and Jackie collaborated with Essential Design engineer Scott Stropkay on thinking about our monitor design in the context of specific usage cases. This led to the selection of our water bag model with an integrated PotaVida monitor. We believe that an all-in-one package which doesn't require the user to provide a container or fasten a monitor to it will simplify the disinfection process and user interaction. The net result is a better design that is more intuitive and will safely store disinfected water.
University of Arizona Microbiological Testing is Underway
PotaVida sent four of our SODIS monitor prototypes to Dr. Chuck Gerba's lab at the University in Arizona at the end of September. This week, the lab is performing their first tests with our monitors in order to correlate our light measurements with E. coli die-off rates. We're eager to hear the results of these initial experiments. These, and the follow up tests, will be used to calibrate and evaluate our bag and bottle prototypes under diverse temperature, cloud cover, and turbidity conditions.
Thanks for reading!
July 16, 2012 by PotaVida
The PotaVida team attended the Aid and International Development Forum in Washington, D.C. June 6-8th, where we met with partner World Vision and Melissa Minke from Access Afya. The trip was extremely successful, and we have new partnerships to test our solar disinfection monitors in Kenya and Ghana. The team also took a few hours to see some sights and take photos.
Just after returning to MIT from the DC conference, Dr. Linnes was again on a plane, this time to Narobi, Kenya. There she worked with Melisa Menke, founder of Access Afya, which is building health clinics in the Mukuru slum in Nairobi. Currently, families in Mukuru have to pay for water daily from an untrusted water source piped in from outside the slum. Once Access Afya clinics are up and running, Access Afya would like to use the PotaVida monitor to ensure safe, solar-disinfected water is provided to patients, and to teach these same patients how to disinfect water in their homes.
Back in Seattle, the PotaVida monitor is being featured as a part of Global Health Month at the Next50 Celebration in Seattle. We are featured in the Experience Global Health Exhibit. The ribbon cutting was on July 2nd, and the exhibit is open to the public as of July 3rd. Come see our monitors in person!
May 17, 2012 by PotaVida
Funding and Partners
As a start-up we are always seeking partners and funding- this month we got both! PotaVida is very pleased to announce that the MIT D-Lab awarded PotaVida a seed grant for field testing and market research over the next 9-12 months. The D-Lab is a group that focuses on developing and disseminating humanitarian technologies in developing countries.
Also coming from our partnership with D-Lab is a new collaboration with Cooper-Perkins, a technology and product development company that has offered pro-bono design work to PotaVida. We are very excited to be working with their team of mechanical and electrical engineers!
Next Generation Prototypes
We have begun production of a small batch of prototypes funded by this grant. We have ordered the new boards, and are working with World Vision to integrate these monitors into some of their existing disaster relief products. We'll keep you up to date on how this progresses.
Microbiological Testing in the Field
Finally, Fundacion SODIS, a Bolivia-based NGO which coordinates solar water disinfection training in Latin America will be including our prototypes in upcoming microbiological testing, which will provide an external validation of the efficacy of our product.
Thanks for reading!
-The PotaVida Team
May 27, 2011 by PotaVida
Every year the University of Washington holds a Business Plan Competition (BPC) to identify the best idea with these four characteristics:
1) Best team
2) Best product
3) Most viable business
4) Deepest knowledge of market
This year 104 teams from 11 universities entered the competition. The teams were cut to the top 36 teams, then 16. Yesterday these 16 teams presented business plans to a panel of judges including venture capitalists, entrepreneurs, lawyers, and business owners.
February 14, 2011 by PotaVida
Graphic designer Sam Dawson heard about PotaVida in late December. Sam was impressed with the idea, enough to volunteer his time and skills to design a logo.
Due to travel and busy schedules we didn’t get a chance to meet with Sam until last week. Over a couple of mugs of coffee at Voxx on Eastlake we met to discuss logo ideas. We started simply with a list of ideas:
3) Helping the poorest of the poor
4) We are making progress
From those we tightened our concept to a key phrase: “Safe water with certainty”.
We think that captures the essence of PotaVida: taking away the uncertainty of the SODIS process. In fact, we liked it so much we made it our new motto.
Sam took our motto, and the two hour conversation and created not one but 5 logos. Now we need to choose between these logos. And we need your help.
You can contribute your thoughts and make suggestions on each of the proposed logos at our FaceBook page. The logos are in the photos section and you can add comments there.
Thanks for your feedback, and thanks to Sam Dawson for his valuable contribution!
December 22, 2010 by PotaVida
PotaVida member Charlie Matlack is interviewed on The Conversation with Ross Reynolds today, Wednesday, December 22nd on Seattle’s NPR station: KUOW 94.9 FM.
“Students Win Prize For Clean Water Testing: A team of UW students invented a device that shows if water is safe to drink. The tool is called PotaVida, and the students were awarded $40,000 from the Rockefeller Foundation to manufacture it.”
Listen at KUOW.ORG
You can fast forward to 9m55s in the MP3 version.
December 21, 2010 by PotaVida
December 21, 2010 by PotaVida
The UW team met with two staff of PATH’s Safe Water project in mid-November to discuss the UW team’s project. PATH is an international nonprofit organization whose vision is a world where innovation ensures that health is within reach of everyone. With headquarters based in Seattle, PATH was deemed a good local resource for feedback, especially regarding global health impact and appropriate technologies.
PATH shared with the UW team key findings gained from four years of research regarding household water treatment and safe storage products, including overviews of the HWTS landscape, barriers to uptake, targeted markets, identification of users, and applicability to different regions of the world. Although PATH is not endorsing the team’s product, the discussions led to a fruitful critique of areas for the UW team to investigate further. The Safe Water team is pleased to be able to provide feedback to local organizations and students and is proud of local endeavors aimed at reaching populations globally.
Learn more about PATH’s Safe Water Project
December 20, 2010 by PotaVida
Photo credit: Mary Levin, University of Washington
University of Washington engineering students have won an international contest for their design to monitor water disinfection using the sun's rays. The students will share a $40,000 prize from the Rockefeller Foundation and are now working with nonprofits to turn their concept into a reality.
Team member Jacqueline Linnes, who recently completed her bioengineering doctorate, traveled to Bolivia last year with the UW chapter of Engineers Without Borders. While there, she and other students treated their drinking water by leaving it in plastic bottles in the sun.
The concept is an old one. Solar disinfection of water in plastic bottles, also called SODIS, is promoted by many nonprofits. It offers a cheap and easy way to reduce some of the roughly 1.5 million diarrhea-related children's deaths each year. But global adoption has been slow, partly because it is hard to know when the water is safe to drink.
The UW entered a competition to design an indicator for Fundacion SODIS, a Bolivia-based nonprofit dedicated to testing and promoting this method. Solar disinfection in water bottles removes more than 99.9 percent of bacteria and viruses, with results similar to chlorination.
The UW device lets users know when the sun's rays have done their job.
Linnes began working on the problem with Engineers Without Borders members Penny Huang, a senior in chemical engineering, and Chin Jung Cheng, then an undergraduate in chemical engineering and now a UW doctoral student in bioengineering.
At first, the students focused on developing a chemical test strip. Then they considered an electronic sensor and contacted Charlie Matlack, a UW doctoral student in electrical engineering.
Together they built a system using parts from a keychain that blinks in response to light.
"It has all the same components that you'd find inside a dirt-cheap solar calculator, except programmed differently," Matlack said.
Other electronics monitor how much light is passing through the bottle and whether a water-filled bottle is present, so the system knows when to stop or start recording data.
Winning the contest means the students split the $40,000 prize, and their efforts may improve the health of children around the world.
"This is part of what engineering education should be," said faculty adviser Howard Chizeck, an electrical engineering professor. "It's educating students with the skills and the desire to make things better."
The competition was put on by InnoCentive Inc., a Boston-based company that since 2001 has hosted a website where organizations can post technical challenges with prize money and anybody can submit a solution.
In this case, even the challenges themselves were solicited on the web. GlobalGiving Foundation Inc., a Washington, D.C. nonprofit that acts as a clearinghouse for charitable donations, asked nonprofits around the world to submit technical challenges relating to water quality. It then chose four to post to InnoCentive, and the Rockefeller Foundation supplied prize money.
The Sodis Foundation evaluated more than 70 proposals before choosing the UW's.
"The evaluators appreciated the fact that the [UW] device takes into consideration factors like the material of the bottle and the turbidity of the water to be disinfected," said co-director Matthias Saladin. "Other factors favoring the proposal were its robust design, the long product life and its competitive price."
The challenge called for designs costing less than $10. The UW students estimate their parts would retail for $3.40, and bulk buying could reduce the cost further.
The Sodis Foundation now holds a nonexclusive license to develop the technology. It is also focusing on larger-scale systems that could be used in situations such as disaster relief. A Sodis Foundation donor has also offered Matlack $16,000 to continue developing a prototype of the water bottle indicator. (The contest proposal tested each part of the system separately.)
Over the next few months Linnes, Matlack and Tyler Davis, a doctoral student in the UW Evans School of Public Affairs, are setting up a nonprofit business to manufacture and market the device, either to users or to nonprofits that promote solar disinfection.
They have approached UW faculty and local nonprofits as potential partners, hoping to draw on a broad range of expertise.
"We're at a point where we recognize the need for work on this beyond engineering," Matlack said. "Ultimately, the hardest part is going to be to get people to use it."